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It’s important to use the right words. It may be imperceptible, but it does matter to us. We’ve simplified everything-branding. Below, in our Branding Glossary, you will find our explanation of branding terms that are free of jargon and full of ingenuity.

A mode of communication where brands express themselves to drive purchase behaviour. Brands should ideally advertise only after they have determined their key messages, through a branding exercise.

A Naming technique used to shorten organisation / brand names. One such example is NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).

It is the act of acquiring another company or brand for expanding the reach to larger audience and / or enhancing the current offerings.

The feeling of 'want' that is about to be converted into demand.

The Brand Awareness measurement (in percentage or in absolute) showing the number of people aware of the brand. Awareness studies can be done at regional or global scale.

An adjective frequently used by our clients to describe us.

This is opposite of Acronym. A backronym is expanded version of an existing brand name.

At Yellow Fishes, we build passionate brands that enhance lives of millions of customers, we term these customer sets as ‘Benefit Group’ instead of ‘target group.

A brand is right at the intersection of its promise and experience. Well, that’s how we like to define it.

A proprietary tool developed by Yellow Fishes to define and articulate a Brand’s core and its values.

Brand architecture is the structure of an organisation’s portfolio that explains the relationship between the master brand and its various sub-brands.

Brand audit is a comprehensive, periodic audit of a brand’s performance with regards to its proposition, values and competition. This also includes customer experience with the brand, communication effectiveness and gap analysis. Brand audit often helps in formulating stronger and more relevant brand strategy.

New brand creation typically involves creation of a cohesive Branding Strategy, Naming, Identity and communication design.

The core of a brand that defines its purpose, offering and reason for existence. Also known as Brand proposition or Brand Core.

Horizontal expansion of a brand that can offer i) complementary products or services, or ii) unrelated products or services.

A set of rules that define a brand’s behaviour and controls its visual and verbal manifestation.

Key identifiers of a brand that includes word, sign, symbol, colours, and design style that makes a brand recognisable. Also check: Logo

This is customers’ interpretation of how the brand experience would be. To form a mental brand image, one need not experience the brand.

This is measured by only one parameter- repeat purchase. But, a customer becomes loyal to a brand when he disregards the alternatives available to him, and is willing to pay a premium of time, or money to purchase that brand.

Human characteristics used to define the brand. E.g. caring, daring, honest, reliable etc.

A rather short term communication platform that has to be in conformity with Brand’s Proposition. Also check: Brand Proposition

Brand Proposition is the heart of any brand. It is the ‘promise’ delivered through its product or service. Otherwise known as Brand Core, or Brand Essence.

It is the ability for customers’ or prospective customers’ to remember a brand name and its associations from their memory when a product/service category is prompted. When we say footwear, what brand comes to your mind?

This is a customers’ ability to recognise a brand name when various associations are used as aids to help in recall.

The process of revitalising an existing brand by changing brand strategy that brings about a change in its visual and verbal communication.

This includes brand proposition, positioning, defines brand tonality, brand architecture and to a great extent brand’s success hinges on its brand strategy.

Brand values support the Brand Proposition and make it come alive. These values transcend down to every employee representing the brand.

Branded House is a Branding Architecture Strategy in which parent company (Master Brand) stays at the forefront and endorses all its products whilst leveraging its existing brand equity.

The process by which a brand’s promise is manifested in brand’s experience across touch points. This maintains consistency for recall and recognition, enhances brand image and increases brand equity in the long term.

A situation where a new product / service from a company steals market share of an existing product / service by the same company.

A catchy headline of a piece of communication.

Set of companies / brands that are serving the same customer set with a similar or better product / service in the same region.

The person who uses / consumes the goods or services himself, without passing it down the value chains.

Corporate Branding is the process of using a company’s name as the brand name to determine its Brand Strategy and manifest the same in design.

The person who purchases the goods or services, but not necessarily for personal use. He may pass it down the value chain by selling the product or service further with tweaking, value add done by him.

A measure of prospective customers who end up buying a product / service. When needs and wants convert into actual purchase, it becomes a demand.

A section of the population who matches the required criteria. It includes age, gender, ethnicity etc.

Characteristics, quality or values that differentiates, sets apart a company, its products or services from the given competition.

The act of getting into new products / services or acquiring a new company that increases market of a company.

A set of customers who purchase a new product / service soon after its launch.

The measure of a brand’s stretch from one product / service category to the other, OR from one price point to the other within one product / service category.

A very brief and concise description of your brand’s purpose that communicates why it exists, what it does, and how.

Benefits communicated by a brand that emotionally connects with its customers. This benefit talk to the limbic brain.

A brand name that is created around name of a person, real or fictional.

A name that has meaning, often understood by a small group of people.

A brand name that evokes feelings and emotions about its brand.

An area or space that is maintained as clear space around a logo.

A brand or company name that describes the experience of using the product or engaging with the company. These names are different from descriptive names.

A new product or service offered under the existing parent brand name that leverages its existing equity.

An offering, part of a product or service that is intended to give benefit(s).

A Qualitative Research technique in which respondents are asked questions or probed for their comments on a given subject. It is generally a small group of 4-8 people. This technique can be very useful if the respondents are not pre-stimulated with the areas of enquiry.

FMCG is an acronym used for Fast Moving Consumer Goods. It refers to the goods like toiletries, food etc that are frequently purchased by consumers.

Benefits communicated by a brand that serves the rational needs of buying that product.

A product that doesn’t carry a brand name OR a brand that has grown incredibly in its recall and refers to the entire category. The latter may often happen with the first mover’s advantage and / or high market penetration compared to competition.

A brand that has international presence, in all continents.

Graphic design is a specialised stream that involves information management, problem-solving, and communication by using elements such as type, colour, illustrations and images.

A low cost marketing strategy in which a brand advertises using unconventional methods are used to gain attention.

A heritage brand is one that has been favourite of many for many decades and continues to be relevant to today’s discerning customers.

When customers don’t see any difference in emotional and functional benefit derived from a brand, vis a vis competition.

House Of Brands is a Branding Architecture Strategy in which parent company (Master brand) stays virtually invisible to the customers and all its sub brands have its own unique identity and equity. This allows for wider Brand Portfolio but needs more investment in building individual sub brands.

A Hybrid Brand Architecture Model exists when there is use of both Branding Strategies- Branded House and House Of brands.

Systematic and intentional placement of information that creates order and clarity whilst communicating in the most effective manner.

Communication mediums or vehicles that communicate information and entertainment at the same time.

A brand that offers its products/services/parts to contribute to something bigger which is consumer facing. More relevant in B2B.

Efforts and processes that align internal employees with the vision and value proposition of the company and get inspired to move towards it confidently.

A company formed by two or more companies coming together to add strengths and capabilities.

Simply meaning “good change” is a Japanese business philosophy that believes in perpetual change with regards to working practices, efficiency and performance that lead to organisational growth.

A person’s manner of living day-to-day life as depicted by activities, possessions, attitudes and behaviour. When we use the industry terminology “lifestyle brand”, it means the brand would complement to the person’s lifestyle.

When a brand extends its current offerings under the same brand name to provide variants, types, flavours etc.

When a customer develops trust in a product / service / brand, he becomes committed to purchasing the same brand again. Also check: Brand Loyalty

A trademark-able symbol, graphic, visual representation of an organisation that reflects beliefs and values of the organisation whilst enabling public recognition. A logo is part of Brand Identity but not the only thing that comprises it. Also check: Brand Identity

A brand that has achieved a dominant position in the market with regards to sales volume, penetration, quality or value offered with its products and services. This is a dynamic concept and market leader is not a function of brand loyalty. It may simply be because of higher penetration or better sales promotion.

Systematic collection of data from a given market, followed by its analysis and reporting that helps in planning and strategising.

A Pricing Strategy where the products and services are priced considerably lower compared to given competition to gain higher sales volume and “penetrate” the market.

A Pricing Strategy where the products and services are priced considerably higher compared to given competition to maximize profits immediately following launch. The prices are lowered with time.

Percentage of sales in a given period for a given market and category, mostly put against competition. This is shown in volume (number of units sold) or value (worth of units sold).

A person or animal (real or fictional) or even a thing that is used as a symbol to represent a brand.

This is the parent brand in Brand Architecture in relationship with sub brands. The relationship of Master Brand with each of its sub brands are determined in ratios. Also called as Mother Brand.

The process of selecting an existing word, or creating new one that will identify a brand, product or service. There are numerous Naming Techniques available.

These are basic necessities needed in order to live a comfortable life.

A small segment of the market as identified by a brand that will benefit from their product / service.

Naming methodology adopted by a company to name its various brands / products / services that illustrate the relationship between various sub-brands.

Specific, measurable target or a goal that a brand wants to achieve in a given period.

It is the sum total of a sales offer made by a company- including product, features, its packaging, warranties, services and terms of use.

A market in which there are a very few sellers offering its products / services to a significantly large customer base (market size).

The design of pack format, its graphics, elements and visual hierarchy on a product brand. Also known as Package Design.

The degree of difference between customers’ perception of a brand and the brand owners’ intent of how their brand should be perceived.

An analysis of customer perception that identifies differences in how they perceive a brand versus its competition.

A well-regarded brand that holds more brand value than other well-known brands. This could also be seen as a brand selling expensive products / services from the customers’ side.

A display, kiosk, stand that stocks a product and provides additional information like features, benefits, etc.

Another term of point-of-purchase - A display, kiosk, stand that stocks a product and provides additional information like features, benefits, etc.

Brands that retailers and wholesalers create and sell, instead of selling brands from original manufacturers and suppliers in the supply chain.

Affect and influence, of sound on human emotions, feelings and behaviour.

A Qualitative Research is a method of inquiry in which the emphasis is on quality of information and does not require statistical / mathematical accuracy. This type of research helps in understanding human emotions, feelings and decision making.

A Quantitative Research is a method of inquiry in which the emphasis is on the quantity of information and requires statistical / mathematical accuracy. This involves use of polls and survey.

A change in brand’s strategic course or vision or change in its Value Proposition that brings about a change in its Brand Identity to reflect the change.

A reason to believe is the proof that the brand delivers the benefits that it promises, and that customers can trust it seeing its credibility.

A branding exercise focussed on retaining existing customers.

Ratio of money gained or lost in proportion to that originally invested.

Measuring sales achievement against the goals defined for the period.

A customer that is outside (above or below) the psychographic benefit group defined for a brand. At Yellow Fishes, we believe that the insight we receive from secondary customer is far richer compared to the insight received from primary customer.

An outer carton, box or sleeve of a packaged product.

Semantics is a specialised study where the relation between signs, symbols, words and phrases with its meaning is understood.

A phrase, construction of sentence using words that is used for commercial, social or political campaign. This is different from a tagline. Slogans come from temporary positioning. Tag lines are derived from proposition.

Use of music, sound or tune, that is created for a brand’s recognition and is part of brand identity.

Individual brand that is linked to the master brand with similar values. Also check: Brand Architecture

When alternate product / service satisfies the customer in equal or greater terms as compared to the other product, it qualifies as a substitute.

The continual process of procuring the raw materials from right vendors, processing them by enhancing its value, converting them into usable end products and dispatching them to right destinations.

Acronym of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Whilst strengths and weaknesses are something that can be enhanced / leveraged / improved by the company, the Opportunities and Threats are external factors, and cannot be controlled by the company.

A phrase, descriptor, or a sentence, that is used with a Brand Name. A Tagline (if not a descriptor) communicates a brand’s promise and stems from Brand’s Proposition. Also check: Slogan

A specific market (formed by a pre-defined segmentation of customers) that is targeted by a marketer for selling its goods and services. We urge you to refer to this as Benefit Group, if you think your products / services make a difference. Also check: Benefit Group

The brand that comes to a customer's mind first when given a category. When we say ‘shoes’, what brand comes to your mind?

A point where a brand interacts with a customer / employee / non-customer (also referred to as moment of truth or point of contact). This interaction, experience can be before, during or after a transaction.

A name, symbol, sound, phrase, design, or other intellectual property that is protected by a brand for its exclusive use and aids in recognition.

This is a discrimination test where respondents are presented with three products, of which two are same. Using one’s senses of touch, taste, sight, smell and sound- respondents have to recognise the unique product.

Typography is the technique of forming and placing fonts and defining type styles for brand communication.

A tangible feature, quality, quantity gains that a brand offers to its customers uniquely. All such things that are intended to benefit the customers and not offered by competition qualify to be called as USP.

The products that customers don’t normally think about and are not keen to buy. These products may require extensive marketing and need-generation campaigns.

A brand developed for customers that have large disposable income to purchase products / services that are relatively expensive.

This is intangible value received by purchasing a brand. Value Proposition may not be unique to a brand. Two brands can promise to deliver the same value. The amount of value delivered by their offerings, however, may be different.

A brand name and other verbal elements like the tagline, jingle, word mark etc that reflect a brand’s promise / proposition.

Use of the internet to reach out to more prospective customers and communicate about brand’s promise and experience.

A company’s Vision is its long-term goal that defines the direction of the company in the future. At Yellow Fishes, we think that vision statements have become boring, uninspiring and a thing of the past, as they don’t compel the employees. Therefore, by means of our Brand Anchor Model, we articulate what brands truly stand for and why it exists. Also check: Brand Anchor Model.

All the visual elements of a brand, such as a logo, symbol, icon, colours, mascot etc. that serve as recognisable elements and reflect brand’s promise / proposition.

When basic human needs are more defined and direct. Example: Quenching thirst is a Need, decision to drink juice is a Want, and buying XYZ brand of juice converts it into a Demand.

A Wordmark, also referred to as logotype is a distinct typographic treatment given to a brand name, or any organisation’s name.

An adjective that describes us, meaning - friendly to strangers.

Yellow Fishes, based in Mumbai and Singapore, is premier Branding Consultancy - specialising in Brand Strategy, Brand Design, Brand Naming and Brand Identity Services. We build passionate global brands.

A brand that talks to and serves young generation as its primary Benefit Group.

A manufacturer selling products directly to its customers without involvement of retailers / wholesalers. This is like direct selling.